We already know from basic knowledge of this card that The Fool is the main character of the deck and in the Tarot he passes through all the 77 other cards besides his own. He represents air and his number is 0 because he's nowhere at once, yet he's everywhere at once. Let's take a look however at a major component of this card that's often overlooked- his trusty dog.
Besides clearly being along for the ride and journey, of note are a few meanings. First, he is depicted as white because white is a colour of purity in the Tarot cards. He represents all the pure motives of his master even though his master lives his life without any plans or foundation and therefore is subject to folly. Wherever the Fool goes, even should it be off the cliff, his trusty dog will follow.
But the important message of the Fool card is that he just IS. And here is where the main reason for the dog being on this card lies. Dogs do not have to be saddled down with the error of their choices or even making choices for that matter. They are happy to just plain exist and treated properly they will always have a smile and wagging tail for you just like the dog depicted on this card.
The Fool is clearly human though and must deal with the ramifications of his choices and speech. And this is the biggest lesson of the trusty dog- better living and a higher quality of life come from just being and existing and willing to go wherever life takes us, especially when we're at the edge of a cliff.